Prediction of California Bearing Ratio from Consistency and Compaction Characteristics of Fine-grained Soils


  • Kamal Ahmed Rashed Assistant Professor
  • Nihad Bahaaldeen Salih
  • Tavga Aram Abdalla Assistant Lecturer



California Bearing Ratio, Geotechnical Properties, Correlation, Fine-grained Soils


Soil’s characteristics are essential for the successful design of projects such as airports runway and flexible pavement. CBR (California Bering Ratio) is one of the significant soil characteristics for highways and airports projects. Thus, the CBR property can be used to determine the subgrade reaction of soil through correlations. Many of the soil geotechnical parameters such as compaction characteristics (Maximum Dry Density, MDD; Optimum Moisture Content, OMC), and consistency parameters (Liquid Limit, LL; Plastic Limit, PL; Plasticity Index, PI) can be in charge of changes that happen in soil CBR value. Soaked and/or non-soaked conditions of soils also affect CBR value. Hence, testing soils in a laboratory for CBR calculation is time-consuming that needs notable effort. Therefore, this study aims to generate some useful correlations for soil’s CBR with compaction and consistency parameters for 85 samples of fine-grained soils. The study trials were applied on natural soil samples of various places in Sulaimani Governorate, Northern Iraq. Statistical analysis has been carried out by using SPSS software (Version 28). Soaked CBR is counted, which is important for conditions such as rural roads that remain prone to water for few days. Based on the statistical analysis, there is a significant correlation between LL, PL, PI, MDD, and OMC with CBR as the dependent variable as a single variable equation with R2 of  0.7673, 0.5423, 0.5192, 0.6489, and 0.51, respectively. In addition, the highest value of R2 correlation was obtained between CBR value with consistency and compaction properties as a multiple regression equation with R2 of 0.82. The obtained equations for correlation purposes are successfully achieved and can be used, notably, to estimate CBR value.


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