Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences <p><strong>Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences</strong> is an&nbsp;open access academic specialized journal that evaluates and publish scientific papers in all engineering study fields submitted by researchers. It is a <strong>quarterly publication</strong> in English, issued in <strong>Baghdad</strong> under the responsibility of College of Engineering - Al-Nahrain University with the registration number<strong><em> ISSN</em> 2521-9154</strong> and <strong><em>eISSN</em> 2521-9162</strong>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Under the responsibility of College of Engineering, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq en-US Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences 2521-9154 <p><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Author(s) Rights</span></strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">Each author retains the right to use the work for non-commercial purposes as well as for further research and spoken presentations.</li> <li class="show">Each author retains the right to use the illustrations and research data in his/her future work.</li> <li class="show">Only one offprint is provided free for each author. The authors can order offprints at the proof stage at certain rates depending on the number of additional copies required and the year of publication.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Publisher Rights</span></strong></p> <p>The publisher of the journal has full rights for publication of the submitted manuscripts, electronic and facsimile formats and for electronic capture, reproduction and licensing in all formats now and in perpetuity in the original and all derivative works.</p> Revisiting the Mesopotamian City: a Drawing of its Inhabitants' Mental- Image <p>Mesopotamian cities were formed sometime during the fourth millennium BCE, and many of them continued to be inhabited as much as 3000 years. While urban characteristics of these cities has been extensively studied, the current article is concerned with exploring the inhabitants' daily experience in the city; a subject that has not been sufficiently explored despite its importance in urban studies. The objective is to expand the understanding of the relation between the ancient city and its occupants. The paper adopts the concept of the City Image as introduced in the seminal work of Kevin Lunch "Image of The City" in investigating aspects of the Mesopotamian city that qualifies it to form a strong mental Image for her citizens, derived from the legibility of its elements and the structure they form. Using a descriptive analytical method in reviewing previous literature, the research first clarifies the shared characters of Mesopotamian cities, and addresses the stature of the city in Mesopotamians' culture. I then specify the five urban elements of the city image as categorised by Lynch; paths, nodes, edges, districts and landmarks, in addition to addressing manifestations of the citizens' urban life in the Mesopotamian city. Afterward, visualization of the citizen's daily experience through the urban fabric of the city is provided, to arrive at a conclusion of the Legibility of the mental image of the Mesopotamian city in the perception of its citizens.</p> Saba Sami Al Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 24 2 88 97 10.29194/NJES.24020088 Image-Based Modelling of Cardiac Mechanics <p>The main objective of this study was to model the left ventricle (LV) based on 2D echocardiography imaging technique to assess the cardiac mechanics for group of patients affected by heart failure. A prospective study has been made at Ibn Al-Bitar center for cardiac surgery, for 13 patients with heart failure (HF), 9 patients were males (69%) and 4 females (31%). The mean age was 54±7 years. Those patients were supposed to undergo a CRT-D (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillator) implant as they didn’t respond to drug therapy. Before CRT-D implantation, 2D echocardiography was performed for all the patients, to model the left ventricle and to measure indices that were used to evaluate cardiac mechanics which are LV pressure, wall stresses, global longitudinal strain, and cardiac output. After 3-months of follow-up, 2D echocardiography was re-assessed and the left ventricular mechanics has been re-measured. Post CRT-D implantation, significant improvement in the cardiac mechanics was observed in 54% of the patients which were called responders (patients that respond to CRT-D device) and the other patients were called non-responders. It has been seen that, the circumferential wall stresses were decreased in responder’s group while increased or remain unchanged in non-responders. Global longitudinal strain for the responder’s group were increased while remain unchanged in the non-responders. So, patients were divided into responders and non-responders, based on improvement of the cardiac mechanics after 3-moths of follow up. It has been concluded that the modelling of the left ventricle based on images obtained from 2D echocardiography imaging techniques, was an important computational tool that was used to enhance understanding and support the evaluation, surgical&nbsp;guidance and treatment management of basic biophysics underlying cardiac&nbsp;mechanics.</p> Mais Odai Al-Saffar Ziad T. Al-Dahhan Rafid B. Al-taweel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 24 2 98 103 10.29194/NJES.24020098 Removal of Reactive Green Dye from Textile Waste Water by Photo Fenton Process: Modeling, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic. <p>This work investigated the removal of the reactive green (R.G) dye from wastewater using the photo-Fenton process. Batch experiments were carried out to research the role of the Impacts of operating parameters. The dosage of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>; dosage Fe<sup>+2</sup>; pH; temperature, and irradiation time were examined. Maximum decolorization efficiencies green dye were achieved at the [H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>]=100 ppm; [Fe<sup>2+</sup>]=20 ppm; pH 3; temperature=56 °C and irradiation time=90 min. This research focuses on modeling, kinetics and thermodynamics of the removal of pollutant (reactive green dye) of water. The results showed that the decolorization kinetic of R.G followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetic. Also the thermodynamic parameters ∆G˚, ∆H˚ and ∆S˚ were determined using the Van't Hoff equation for the oxidation processes. The changes in Gibbs free energy showed the oxidation process under normal conditions is non-spontaneous.</p> Tabarek Abdulsajad Jabar Khalid M. Mousa Al-zobai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 24 2 104 111 10.29194/NJES.24020104 CPAP Hardware/Simulation and Control Design for Respiratory Disorders: A Review <p>Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) ventilation remains a mainstay treatment for different respiratory disorders. Good pressure stability and pressure reduction during exhalation are of major importance condition to ensure the clinical efficacy and comfort of CPAP therapy.&nbsp; Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and today coronavirus (COVID-19) are the main two diseases mitigated by the CPAP. This paper introduced a systematic review of the CPAP design in terms of the hardware design, Simulation-based CPAP system, control algorithm, and the measured performance. The accuracy is used as measurement of performance and calculated from the pressure value. The accuracy was compared to the predefined U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-based threshold value in which it considers this value as a reference. The results related to the modern CPAP devices introduced in this study to explain the accuracy of experimental CPAP. These were compared with a commercial CPAP devices. Also, it was revealed how the results coincide with the error ratio defined by the FDA as an evaluation measurement. The FDA error ratio determines the performance of the optimized CPAP device. This work is the first review that presented the knowledge about engineering design of the CPAP system, so it will be the first in the literature.</p> Athraa Sabeeh Mikha Hadeel K. Aljobouri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 24 2 112 122 10.29194/NJES.24020112 Prediction of California Bearing Ratio from Consistency and Compaction Characteristics of Fine-grained Soils <p>Soil’s characteristics are essential for the successful design of projects such as airports runway and flexible pavement. CBR (California Bering Ratio) is one of the significant soil characteristics for highways and airports projects. Thus, the CBR property can be used to determine the subgrade reaction of soil through correlations. Many of the soil geotechnical parameters such as compaction characteristics (Maximum Dry Density, MDD; Optimum Moisture Content, OMC), and consistency parameters (Liquid Limit, LL; Plastic Limit, PL; Plasticity Index, PI) can be in charge of changes that happen in soil CBR value. Soaked and/or non-soaked conditions of soils also affect CBR value. Hence, testing soils in a laboratory for CBR calculation is time-consuming that needs notable effort. Therefore, this study aims to generate some useful correlations for soil’s CBR with compaction and consistency parameters for 85 samples of fine-grained soils. The study trials were applied on natural soil samples of various places in Sulaimani Governorate, Northern Iraq. Statistical analysis has been carried out by using SPSS software (Version 28). Soaked CBR is counted, which is important for conditions such as rural roads that remain prone to water for few days. Based on the statistical analysis, there is a significant correlation between LL, PL, PI, MDD, and OMC with CBR as the dependent variable as a single variable equation with R<sup>2</sup> of&nbsp; 0.7673, 0.5423, 0.5192, 0.6489, and 0.51, respectively. In addition, the highest value of R<sup>2</sup> correlation was obtained between CBR value with consistency and compaction properties as a multiple regression equation with R<sup>2</sup> of 0.82. The obtained equations for correlation purposes are successfully achieved and can be used, notably, to estimate CBR value.</p> Kamal Ahmed Rashed Nihad Bahaaldeen Salih Tavga Aram Abdalla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 24 2 123 129 10.29194/NJES.24020123 Stability and Volumetric Properties of Colored Asphalt Mixtures Containing Iron Oxide <p>The objective of this paper is find the effect of using iron oxide as a filler on the Marshall stability, flow and the volumetric properties of HMA and compared the results with conventional HMA using limestone dust. Three blends were used: coarse, mid and fine with neat bitumen (AC 40-50). One aggregate type (crushed) with two types of fillers: limestone and iron oxide III (α- ) with three different filler content 6%, 8% and 10%. The Marshall mix design was conducted on the three blends and the optimum binder content is computed for each blend. The Marshall stability test results and the volumetric properties analysis showed that increasing the iron oxide content from 6% to 10%&nbsp; increases the stability about 28%, 17% , 16% for the coarse , mid and fine mixtures respectively. This increment in stability of mixtures using iron oxide related to the increment in specific gravity of the mix (Gmb) by (1.3% to 1.5% about 30 to 50 kg/m<sup>3</sup>). On the other hand, the flow of mixtures is decreased about (5%) for mixes using iron oxide than the ones that used limestone as filler. The fine blend with 10% iron oxide exhibit the highest stability of 13.3 kN. While the coarse blend stability was 10 kN for the same filler type and content. Generally, the Marshall Test results of HMA using iron oxide as filler showed better resistance to plastic deformation, also produce denser HMA with higher stiffness. On the other hand, the volumetric properties analysis showed lesser values as compared with conventional mixture where the void in mineral aggregates and void filled with asphalt has decreased but within the acceptable limits.</p> Samer Ali Naji Alaa H. Abed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 24 2 130 136 10.29194/NJES.24020130 Effect of Aggregate Gradation and Filler Content on the Rutting Resistance of Modified Colored Hot Mix Asphalt <p>Rutting is considered as the most generated distress in Iraqi roads as a result of the high temperature and excessive traffic load. So, it is essential to utilize polymer modified binder to increase the performance of pavements. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of aggregate gradation and filler content on the rutting formation of Colored Hot Mix Asphalt CHMA. The HMA was colored by using iron oxide as filler to produce red HMA. Two blends were used: fine and coarse with two different types of filler iron oxide for CHMA and limestone for conventional HMA with two filler content 6% and 10%. Neat (AC 40-50) and modified asphalt (AC 40-50 + 4%SBS) were used. Tests are held on adding 4% Styrene Butadiene Styrene )SBS( by the weight of neat asphalt (AC 40-50) to raise the performance grade by two grades from PG (64-16) to PG (76-16) [1] and [2]. The wheel tracking test is used to assess the rut depth of the CHMA. The test results showed that the using iron oxide with neat asphalt increase the rut depth resistance by 200 and 400 failure load cycles than mixtures using limestone (cycles that mix reach 25 mm rut depth) for fine and coarse mix respectively. Also, the effect of gradation shows that the fine mixture fails at 4000 cycles while the coarse mixture fails at 1800 cycles for 6% limestone mixtures.&nbsp; Increasing the iron oxide content from 6% to 10% leads to increase the failure load cycles by 2200 and 1200 cycles for fine and coarse mixture respectively using modified asphalt. The fine mixture with 10% iron oxide using modified asphalt gives the best performance with 7000 cycles than the coarse mixture with 10% filler content and modified asphalt with 4000 cycles. irrespective the filler and type of binder, the dense mixtures using iron oxide as filler exhibit better resistance to rutting formation than coarse mixtures.</p> Samer Ali Naji Alaa H. Abed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 24 2 137 143 10.29194/NJES.24020137 Facial Expression Recognition Based on Texture Features <p>Facial expressions are a form of non-verbal communication, they appear as changes on the surface of the facial skin according to one's inner emotional states, aims, or social communications. Classification of these expressions is a normal process for humans, but it is a challenging task for machines.<br>Lately, interest in facial expression recognition has grown, and many systems have been developed to classify expressions from facial images. Any expression recognition system is comprised of three steps. The first one is face acquisition, then feature extraction, and finally classification. The classification accuracy depends primarily on the feature extraction step. &nbsp;Therefore, in this research we study many texture feature extraction descriptors and compare their results under the same preprocessing circumstances; moreover, we propose two improvements for one of these descriptors, which give better results than the original one. We validate the results on two commonly used databases for expression recognition using Matlab programming language, wishing all of that to be an interesting point for researchers in this field.</p> Alaa Nabeel Haj Najeb Nasser Nasser ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 24 2 144 148 10.29194/NJES.24020144 Evaluation of Water seepage Along Proposed Baghdad Metro Tunnel Across Tigris River <p>Water seepage can cause serious problems in geotechnical engineering especially for construction under the water level. Baghdad metro tunnel is one of the leading vital projects to solve the major problem of crowding roadways in a highly population increase city like Baghdad. In this study, the seepage rate that will flow toward different selected points along the tunnel section across Tigris River was calculated during the excavation process, with the consideration of three different water levels of River at maximum, moderate, and minimum water depths. A three-dimensional model of the study has been modeled using the finite element software (PLAXIS 3D V20). The water seepage was observed for six different locations on each route of the tunnel. The study showed that the change of water depth in the river has no significant effect on the seepage – time curve shape. However, increasing the water level in River from minimum to maximum leads to increase the seepage rate about 15%.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aadil Abdulsalam Hamid Haitham Alaa Husain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 24 2 149 158 10.29194/NJES.24020149