Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences 2019-12-05T11:02:12+00:00 Prof. Dr. Bassam G. Rasheed Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences</strong> is an&nbsp;open access academic specialized journal that evaluates and publish scientific papers in all engineering study fields submitted by researchers. It is a <strong>quarterly publication</strong> in English, issued in <strong>Baghdad</strong> under the responsibility of College of Engineering - Al-Nahrain University with the registration number<strong><em> ISSN</em> 2521-9154</strong> and <strong><em>eISSN</em> 2521-9162</strong>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> First Pages 2019-10-26T12:48:56+00:00 Editorial Board <p>Editorial Board</p> 2019-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison between Graded Crushed Gravel Filter and Textile Filter using Statistical Analysis 2019-12-05T11:02:12+00:00 Amer Hasan Alhaddad Rusul Latteef Naji <p>Many researchers have applied several experiments and research studies by developing criteria's design of drainage to improve the drainage process, and to show that the filters plays an important role to improve and maintain the drainage system from being blocked due to siltation. There are several types of filters, including granular mineral materials and organic materials, the other filter that was used is made from a special fabric material such as paper, burlap, or special fabric textile material. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of textile filters, and if it is desirable and suitable for Iraqi soil using statistical analysis. This study was conducted in the laboratory using sand tank model and two types of filters (graded crushed gravel and textile) with two types of soil (sandy soil and loamy soil) to compare and evaluate the hydraulic performance and the efficiency of utilizing textile filter instead of graded crushed gravel filter in drainage systems using statistical analysis methods. These statistical analysis show that there was a good agreement between measured and theoretical values of entrance resistance when using the two filters in sandy soil. On the other hand, the results showed that there was a weak performance when textile filters in were used in heavy soil (loamy soil) due to the high value of root mean square error (RMSE) and low value of agreement index (d). The results of statistical analysis show that the textile filter is desirable and suitable for Iraqi soil especially for sandy soil due to low entrance resistance of flow compared to loamy soil.</p> 2019-10-26T10:42:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design and Implementation of Children Tracking System using IoT 2019-12-05T11:02:11+00:00 Sama Samaan <p>In the past few years, all over the world, crime against children has been on the rise, and parents always worry about their children whenever they are outside. For this reason, tracking and monitoring children have become a considerable necessity. This paper presents an outdoor IoT tracking system which consists of a child module and a parent module. The child module monitors the child location in real time and sends the information to a database in the cloud which forwards it to the parent module (represented as a mobile application). This information is shown in the application as a location on Google maps.&nbsp; The mobile application is designed for this purpose in addition to a number of extra functions. A Raspberry Pi Zero Wireless is used with a GSM/GPS module on shield to provide mobile communication, internet and to determine location. Implementation results for the suggested system are provided which shows that when the child leaves a pre-set safe area, a warring message pops up on the parent’s mobile and a path from the current parent location to the child location is shown on a map.</p> 2019-10-26T10:47:28+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Oil Temperature on Load Capacity and Friction Power Loss in Point Contact Elasto-hydrodynamic Lubrication 2019-12-05T11:02:10+00:00 Hassan S Fatehallah Zaid S. Hammoudi Lutfy Y. Zidane <p>This study presents a numerical analysis for point contact Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication EHL. The oils used are (0W-30 and 10W-40) as lubricants. The pressure and film-thickness profiles for point contact EHL are evaluated. The aims of this study are to estimate the effect of oil’s temperature on friction force, coefficient of friction and load carrying capacity. By using FORTRAN program, the Forward-iterative method is used, to solve two dimensional (2D) EHL problem. The viscosity is updating in the solution by using Roeland’s model. After the convergence of pressure is done, the friction force, friction power losses, and friction coefficient are calculated. The temperature used ranges from (-20 to 120 <sup>o</sup>C). The results showed the film-thickness decreases with the increasing of temperature. Though the maximum pressure is not affected, only the pressure distribution and profile are changed, inlet pressure decreases and the pressure profile tends towards a hertzian (dry contact) one. The friction force and the coefficient of friction decrease with the increasing of temperature.</p> 2019-10-26T10:49:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stress Analysis of Thoracolumbosacral Orthosis (TLSO) for Scoliosis deformity and its Effects on Gait Cycle 2019-12-05T11:02:09+00:00 Fahad Mohanad Kadhim Sara I. Ahmed <p>This work involved two major parts: the first one is the experimental part which included treatment of scoliosis deformity by manufacturing thoracolumbosacral orthosis, measuring&nbsp; the cobb angle of deformity, measuring the gait cycle data and walk path for both legs and suggesting a composite material to improve the mechanical properties of the orthosis and finally the interface pressure between trunk&nbsp; and orthosis is measured for twelve points covering of the total TLSO surface area by using f-socket devise. The second part of this study is the numerical simulation part during which the stresses are calculated using Ansys software for calculating stresses due to interface pressure loading boundary condition. The result shows no deference in gait cycle phases but the clear difference noted in walking path due to deviate center of mass, maximum pressure recorded left thoracic region with 900KPa due to correct spinal deformity while the minimum pressure recorded at right chest with l40KPa because of it is tissue region and Maximum value of stress was recorded at the left thoracic region with 2.81MPa due to Maximum interface pressure at this point.</p> 2019-10-26T11:42:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Software Design Tool for Sizing PV Stand-Alone System and Hybrid PV-Diesel System with Iraq Climate 2019-12-05T11:02:08+00:00 Saja Majeed Hashim Osamah Fadhil Abdulateef Falah Ibrahim Alattar <p>This paper displays the improvement of Graphical User Interface programming for sizing principle segment in Stand-Alone PV system and PV- Diesel hybrid power system based on Iraq conditions. The solar system software is a tool depends on the input data by the user to give correct results on the basis of what has been introduced. Therefore, this software tool Includes products (PV modules, charge controller, inverter, battery and diesel generator) which can be obtained from the market with their detail. This software presents a guideline for photovoltaic system integrator to match the load requirement to design the effective size of components and system configuration, in hybrid PV–Diesel system. The ratio of photovoltaic solar energy to diesel generators is introduced by considering the contribution of hybrid system energy.</p> 2019-10-26T11:51:02+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Finite Element Analysis of the Geogrid-Pile Foundation System under Earthquake Loading 2019-12-05T11:02:07+00:00 Athraa A. Al Ghanim Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu Asma Thamir Ibraheem <p>The finite element method is one of the important methods in analyzing geotechnical engineering problems; its main advantage is the ability to apply for the materials exhibiting non-linear stress-strain behavior. In this study the finite element program <strong>PLAXIS 3D 2013</strong> is used to study the behavior of the piles under the influence of seismic waves in saturated sandy soil and the effect of adding geogrid with the pile foundation. The program has been used to facilitate the representation of the real model, input the required soil parameters and implementation of seismic data. Seismic wave, the soil geometry and the pile dimensions were fixed in all models, while dimension and depth of the geogrid used were varied to study the influence of different depth and dimension in reducing the pile displacements and the pore water pressure of soil. The results show that The reduction in settlement ratio (the difference between settlement of pile without and with using geogrid to the settlement without using geogrid) for ( ×L/2), (L×L) and (2L×2L) are 10.6%, 17% and 21.3% respectively. And the settlement ratio for geogrid at depths 8.33% and 12.5% of pile length are 9.6% and 17% respectively.</p> 2019-10-26T11:55:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fresh, Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance Behavior of Eco-Friend Self-Compacted Concrete 2019-12-05T11:02:06+00:00 Sheelan M. Hama Alhareth M. Abdulghafor Mohammed Tarrad Nawar <p>In this work, waste glass powder from broken windows and plastic fibers from waste polyethylene terephthalate bottles are utilized to produce an economical self-compact concrete. Fresh properties (slump flow diameter, slump Flow T50, V. Funnel, L–Box), mechanical properties (Compressive strength and Flexural strength) and impact resistance of self-compact concrete are investigated. 15% waste glass powder as a partial replacement of cement with five percentages of polyethylene terephthalate plastic waste were adopted: 0% (reference), 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, 1.25% and 1.5% by volume. It seems that the flow ability of self-compact concrete decreases with the increasing of the amount of plastic fibers. The compressive strength was increased slightly with plastic fiber content up to (0.75%), about 4.6% For more than (0.75%) plastic fiber. The compressive strength began to decrease about 15.2%. The results showed an improvement in flexural strength and an impact on the resistance in all tested specimens’ content of the plastic fibers, especially at (1.5%) fibers.</p> 2019-10-26T12:19:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Monotonic and Fatigue Performance of Double-skin Push-out and Tensile Segments of Divers Shear Connectors – Review 2019-12-05T11:02:05+00:00 Zainab Hussam Alzahawy Laith Khaled AL-Hadithy <p>Double skin composite (DSC) construction or Steel/concrete/steel sandwich construction (SCSS) is an innovative and relatively new form of composite construction that can be used in submerged tube tunnels, bridges deck, nuclear structures, liquid and gas containment structures, offshore and onshore structures, military shelters, and shear walls in buildings. The system consists of a plain concrete core sandwiched between two steel plates interconnected together by various types of mechanical shear connectors. The DSC construction perceives advantages that the external steel plates act as both formwork and primary reinforcement, and also as impermeable, blast and impact resistant membranes. The major duty of the shear connectors is to withstand longitudinal shear force and beam/slab separation, while in the bi-steel type where shear connectors are friction welded at both their two ends to two parallel steel plates, the longitudinal and transverse shear force, as well as plate buckling are resisted. The present paper highlights the previous prime researches concerning the subjects of SCSS composite construction, specifically on the conducted tests (push-out tests, tensile, direct shear tests, and bending tests) in which the components of partial interaction (uplift and slip forces) are resisted by various types of shear connectors.</p> 2019-10-26T12:24:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Study of Compartmental Modeling of Sustained Release Oral Dosage Forms and Intramuscular Injection 2019-12-05T11:02:03+00:00 Khawla H. Rasheed <p>This study has been performed to compare the compartmental modeling of two types of extravascular routes, sustained-release (SR) oral dosage forms and intramuscular (IM) injection. Twenty healthy volunteers received a single dose of 100 mg Diclofenac Sodium (DS) sustained-release tablet, then 75 mg DS Intramuscular injection after two weeks washout period. The concentrations of DS in plasma were measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data analyzed using compartmental modeling, with single time-variant input and output. Primary kinetic parameters for both formulations, ( , , ) and other kinetic parameters were evaluated. The result shows that the IM injection needs a shorter time to reach the maximum concentration with convergent bioavailability to SR oral dosage forms, in another hand the data of IM injection fitted to single-compartment model with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and the data of SR tablet fitted to two-compartment models with a correlation coefficient of 0.97.</p> 2019-10-26T12:30:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Flexural Behavior of Concrete Members Reinforced With 3D-Textile Fibers-A Review 2019-12-05T11:02:02+00:00 Mays Rabea Abdulghani Ahmed S. Ali <p>Normal concrete is weak against tensile strength, has low ductility and also insignificant resistance to cracking. The addition of diverse types of fibers at specific proportions can enhance the mechanical properties as well as the durability. Discrete fiber, which is commonly used, have many disadvantages such as balling the fiber, random distribution, and limitation of the used Vf ratio. Based on this vision, a new technique was discovered, enhancing concrete by textile-fiber to avoid all the problems mentioned above. This paper presents all important consequence and conclusions obtained from previous studies on how to strengthen concrete with two-dimensional and three-dimensional textile-fibers, and focuses on the flexural behavior of concrete members. The results indicate that there was an improvement in flexural strength, deformation capacity, and toughness with different load conditions when using different types of textile-fiber. It was observed that the effect of textile-fibers would increase when this fiber was coated by epoxy. In TRC system, there is a significant impact on the number of textile-fiber layers used.</p> 2019-10-26T12:35:50+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fatigue and Vibration Parameters Improvement of Steel DIN 41Cr4 by Ultrasonic Shock Peening Treatment 2019-12-05T11:02:01+00:00 Zeina Shaker Mahmood Jumaa Salman Chiad <p>The effects of the ultrasonic peening treatment (UPT) on the rotating bending fatigue behavior and the behavior of the vibrations of alloy steel DIN 41Cr4 were studied. Hardness test, Tensile test, Constant amplitude fatigue tests, and the vibrations measurements have been carried out on the specimens. Also, the fracture surface was examined and analyzed by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results of the investigations, e.g. stress to number of cycles to failure (S-N) curves, fatigue strength improvement factor was 7%. The decreasing percentage of maximum Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) acceleration of the ultrasonic peened condition compared to the untreated conditions was 45%.</p> 2019-10-26T12:40:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Guidelines for Authors and Publication Requirements 2019-10-26T12:51:51+00:00 NJES Editor <p>Guidelines for Authors and Publication Requirements</p> 2019-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##