Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences 2020-01-02T22:15:48+00:00 Prof. Dr. Bassam G. Rasheed Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences</strong> is an&nbsp;open access academic specialized journal that evaluates and publish scientific papers in all engineering study fields submitted by researchers. It is a <strong>quarterly publication</strong> in English, issued in <strong>Baghdad</strong> under the responsibility of College of Engineering - Al-Nahrain University with the registration number<strong><em> ISSN</em> 2521-9154</strong> and <strong><em>eISSN</em> 2521-9162</strong>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Design and Implement an Exoskeleton Arm for Reinforcement the Human Muscles after Stroke 2020-01-02T22:15:48+00:00 Duha Qais Abd-ul-Amir Auns Qusai Hashim Abdulnasir Hussin Ameer <p>Mobility limitations in stroke survivors yield negative impacts on the quality of life for such individuals. Rehabilitation is needed to help them recover and regain mobility. Accordingly, this study aims to design and validate a “Robotic Exoskeleton” intended for stroke rehabilitation. The basic principles of this robotic exoskeleton device are its dependence on electromyography signal and electronic microcontroller to provide an efficient physiotherapy exercises system.<br>The robotic exoskeleton is a one degree of freedom which performs the flexion and extension of the elbow joint. After the design was completed, 19 subjects participated in this study: 4 healthy subjects, and 15 post-stroke patients.<br>The results showed the benefit of robotic exoskeleton in increasing the elbow range of motion, where angle of elbow flexion was raised from the first physiotherapy session to maximum elbow flexion in the last session.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Future Initiatives of Smart communities in Baghdad as a Smart City 2020-01-02T22:15:48+00:00 Noor Dheyaa Alkamoosi Mohammed Qasim Al-Ani <p>Today, our cities are facing a host of challenges to accomplish the quality of life or their inhabitants. On the one hand, city planners and architects seek to preserve heritage, habits, and city peculiarities. On the other hand, it is necessary that the city is kept abreast of the rapid changes in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI) and smart city concept. In Baghdad, it could be observed that there are several activities based on community initiatives, awareness campaigns, and initiatives which are self-funding from youth or funding from NGOs, and INGOs. How can we invest in such initiatives to achieve a smart city, emphasizing that the city is for the people, not a city of things? As we know that smart cities have six factors: smart (economy, governance, environment, people, mobility, and living).</p> <p><strong>This paper assumes</strong> <strong>that smart communities are the seventh factor of smart cities factors which could play an essential role to apply the smartness in Baghdad</strong>. In this case, it will help to achieve making decisions and a feedback evaluation system will be subject to transparency, openness, vitality, and sustainability because it will stem from the community and ensure the sustainability in a smart city.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Additives Aid Switch to Protect the Photodegradation of Plastics in Outdoor Construction 2020-01-02T22:15:48+00:00 Salam A. Mohammed Rahimi M. Yusop Mohammed Abdulsattar Mohammed Rasheed Abed Mohammed Dina S. Ahmed Ahmed Abdulrazaq Ahmed Ahmed Abdulelah Ahmed Basheer Ali Emad Yousif <p>Poly(vinyl chloride) photodecomposition films that contains melamine Schiff base (0.5% by weight) as photostabilizers upon preservation with an ultraviolet light (UV) was investigated. The photodecomposition rate constant was reduced significantly in existence of melamine Schiff base compared to PVC (blank). The Schiff base <strong>1</strong> was found to most effective additive in PVC photostabilization films. Photodecomposition rate content for PVC films containing Schiff base <strong>1</strong> was found to be 5 × 10<sup>-3</sup> sec<sup>-1</sup> compared to 8.7 × 10<sup>-3</sup> sec<sup>-1</sup> for blank film. Ultraviolet radiation aging behaviors of PVC films were studied through leaching test by measuring the degree of migration. The surface morphology of PVC films was inspected by scanning electron microscope.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance Analysis of Volume Loads of (Services and Transmission) Traffic in VPN Networks: A Comparative Study 2020-01-02T22:15:48+00:00 Subhi Aswad Mohammed <p>This paper proposes a design for a network connected over public networks using Virtual Private Network (VPN) technique. The network consists of five sites; center server and four customer service sites, each site consists of a number of LANs depending on the user services requirements. This work aims to measure the effect of VPN on the performance of a network. Four approaches are implements: Network design without using VPN, network design using VPN with centralized servers, network design using VPN with distributed servers, and network design using server load balance.<br>The OPNET and BOSON&nbsp;&nbsp; simulation results show higher response time for packet transmission due to effect of VPN tunneling. The concurrent activation of application execution is used as a solution to the delay problem of the initial timing period while the application proceeds. The results dealing with QoS are E-mail, FTP, voice services traffic and IP traffic dropped. The VPN Tunnels is in the range of (0.01 to 0.02) sec.; along with this simulator there are four VPN tunnels in the network. Also, a special server’s load balance is used to manage distribution of the server processing load across all other network servers to achieve the best response</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Enhancement of Maintenance Downtime Using Poisson Motivated-Taguchi Optimization Method 2020-01-02T22:15:47+00:00 Akinwale Olusegun Raji Sunday Ayoola Oke <p>In an original article, an addition was made to the well-known Taguchi’s methodical design literature by proposing how Poisson distribution may be incorporated into the Taguchi method for enhanced performance analysis in optimization. While the article is recent, it was found compelling enough to apply this novel concept of Poisson distribution to a growing area of maintenance research known as maintenance downtime analysis. Consequently, this paper contributes to the expanding research neighborhood through a Taguchi optimization method based on Poisson distribution related to the maintenance process optimization. A valuable method to optimize maintenance downtime was developed wherein the Poisson distribution was used to achieve the probability of maintenance downtime. An important foundation of the method is the Taguchi scheme. These elements were transformed into the factor-level design of the Poisson enhanced Taguchi scheme while the framework was tested using data from a process industry for validation. Interesting, the Taguchi's signal-to-noise quotient led to an enhanced set of limiting factors for better reliability of the system as G<sub>1</sub>H<sub>1</sub>I<sub>1</sub>J<sub>1</sub>K<sub>3. </sub>By interpretation, the following was found: downtime (204.61 mins), probability density function (0.00187), and cumulative density function (0.00776). The combination of these factors and levels will enhance maintenance downtime in the process industry as a result of their contributions. The outcome revealed the competence of the model to optimization schemes.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Accelerated Iterative Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction Approach 2020-01-02T22:15:47+00:00 Shimaa Abdulsalam Khazal Mohammed Hussein Ali <p>Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an indispensable method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) images. CBCT employs a mathematical technique of reconstruction, which reveals the anatomy of the patient’s body through the measurements of projections. The mathematical techniques employed in the reconstruction process are classified as; analytical, and iterative. The iterative reconstruction methods have been proven to be superior over the analytical methods, but due to their prolonged reconstruction time those methods are excluded from routine use in clinical applications. The aim of this research is to accelerate the iterative methods by performing the reconstruction process using a graphical processing unit (GPU). This method is tested on two iterative-reconstruction algorithms (IR), the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), and the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART). The results are compared against the traditional ART, and MART. A 3D test head phantom image is used in this research to demonstrate results of the proposed method on the reconstruction algorithms. The simulation results are executed using MATLAB (version R2018b) programming language and computer system with the following specifications: CPU core i7 (2.40 GHz) for the processing, with a NIVDIA GEFORCE GPU. Experimental results indicate, that this method reduces the reconstruction time for the iterative algorithms.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Plasmonic Nanoparticles on the Electric Field Strength to Improve Performance of Single Crystalline Solar Cell 2020-01-02T22:15:48+00:00 Samah Mohammed Al-Karawi Mohammed Fawzi Mohammed Altemimi <p>The effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) on the electric field strength and distribution for improvement solar cell performance is investigated and simulated. By manipulating the properties of nanoparticles, distribution of the electric field was altered. In this paper, classical solar cell (p-n junction) and improved structure (add an extra layer of SiO2 and gold nanoparticles on the top of p-n junction) is simulated. Different sizes of NPs, thickness of SiO2 sublayer, and spacing distance between NPs is done to improving the electric field and showing plamonic effect. Gold NPs deposition on single crystalline silicon solar cell is modelled by COMSOL 5.2 2D, Electromagnetic wave propagation in the frequency domain with periodic boundary conditions. The best wavelength found in our work is 550 nm. The electric field enhances when the size of NPs increases but it must be limited. When gold NPs are deposited on the SiO2 sublayer, the plasmonic effect appears due to decreasing the refractive index. Moreover, separation distance between NPs affect the electric field enhancement by manipulating the number of NPs, the distance decreases and the plasmonic interaction appears.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Improvement Silicon Nanostructured Surface by Laser Induced Etching Process 2020-01-02T22:15:47+00:00 Marwa Hikmat Ibrahim Bassam G. Rasheed <p>Surface reconstruction of silicon using lasers could be utilized to produce silicon nanostructures of various features. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical etching processes of silicon were employed to synthesize nanostructured surface. Effects of current densities 5, 10 and 20 mA/cm<sup>2</sup> on the surface features were examined. It is found that the surface porosity and layer thickness increase with the current density. Moreover, large surface area of 410 m<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>3</sup> can be achieved when laser power density 0f 0.6 W/cm<sup>2</sup> was used during the etching process. Optimum operating conditions were found to achieve better silicon nanostructured surface features. The surface roughness can be reduced to 8.3 nm using laser beam of 650 nm irradiated the silicon surface during the photoelectrochemical etching process. The surface morphology of the nanostructured silicon surface using SEM and AFM could give rich details about the surface. Silver nanoparticles of 10 – 20 nm was embedded at the nanostructured silicon surface by LIFT process to reduce the surface resistance and maintain the large surface area. This technique enables silicon nanostructures to be efficiently used in many optoelectronic applications.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Experimental Measurement of Rice Husk Effectiveness as an Alternative Adsorbent for Turbidity Reduction in Synthetic Water 2020-01-02T22:15:47+00:00 Noora Saad Faraj Samara Saad Faraj <p>Providing a clean and high quality drinking water to both rural as well as urban areas is a great challenge by itself, adding to it the large volume requirements of such water at high population areas means a very high cost for such industry because mainly of the cost of expensive commercially available adsorbent used in this process. This led inhabitants of the remote and/or rural areas to use less quality water with all its risks and health challenges. In this study, a locally collected rice husk is tested to be used as an alternative adsorbent to the expensive common commercial ones. Parameters like adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of turbidity, and pH level were tested to investigate their effects on the process. Treatment of synthetic turbid water was done after changing these parameters to measure the effect of each parameter alone and the results showed a set of parameters that can be used to achieve high efficiency of turbidity removal. The study concluded that rice husk can be used as a well cheap alternative adsorbent to reduce the river water turbidity due to its availability and low cost with a decent removal efficiency approaching 95%.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##